学習障害(LD)について深掘りする【1】

メンタル・イデア・ラボの本城ハルです。

明けましておめでとうございます。本年もよろしくお願いいたします。

本年最初のコラムは学習障害(LD)についてです。何回かに分けて学習障害(LD)の特性や自宅でもできるトレーニングについてお話していきたいと思います。

今回取り上げる読み書きのLDはディスレクシアとも言います。視力や聴力に問題はなく、知的な遅れもないのに中枢神経に機能不全があることで、文字(記号)と言葉(音)が結びつきづらく、読み書きに関して躓きや学習面での困り感が出てしまう“機能障害”です。知的障害ではないので注意してください。

発達障害と併発することも多く比較的気付かれやすいのですが、LDだけだと気付かれにくく“知能が低い”“勉強ができない”と思われがちです。

ディスレクシアの特性として、

知能の高さに比べ、読むこと書くことや記憶に特徴的な困難さがありますが、論理的能力は問題なく、話し言葉は高いレベルで理解できます。

  • 視力(視る力)に問題はありませんが、視覚情報処理(図、地を見たり、見たものを理解する力)や、見たことを一時的に記憶として保持する力が弱いので、左右がわからない、板書や書き写しが苦手、文字の見間違いが起こります。
  • 聴力(聴く力)に問題はありませんが、聴覚情報処理(聞いたことを一時的に記憶として保持する力や聞いたことを理解する力)に弱さがあるので、聞き間違い、聞き漏らしが多く(聞き直しも多い)、電話対応は苦手です。

文字(記号)と言葉(音)が結びつきにくい、とはどのようなことでしょうか。例えば、

【ま】← “記号”は【m+a】← “音”

ということがわからないので、読むことや書くことに時間がかかります。

文字を読む、ということは【音声化】と【理解】がセットになって情報処理されるのですが、ディスレクシアは音韻理解の力が弱く、音声化に問題を生じると言われています。

ここで課題になるのが、普通の速さで滑らかに読める(流暢性)で、一文字一音節の平仮名、カタカナは読めても、漢字の読みが苦手などが起きます。声に出しての音読をしなければ、字面を拾いながら書かれている意味はそれなりに理解できるので、本人は読みが苦手という意識を持ちづらいのです。

書くことに困り感があると、字のバランスが悪くマス目や罫線からはみ出したり、字が汚く読めない(時には書いた本人すら読めない)ということが起こります。息子はこのタイプで、丁寧に観ていくと視力に問題はなくても“視覚機能の跳躍”に弱さを抱えていることがわかりました。

また、文章構成が苦手で正しい文法で文章が書けないという困り感や、視空間認知や記憶に弱さがあると、目で見たとおりに書けない、字の細部まで覚えられないので正しく書けない(れ/ね/る、や、鏡文字になるなど)という問題が生じます。

ディスレクシアがあると作業記憶(ワーキングメモリ<一時的に記憶を保持しておく力>)にも弱さがある人が多いので、指示行動が苦手だったり、電話の要件を聞き取りメモすることや、次にやろうと思っていても他に注意を移した途端にやろうとしていたことを忘れたりと、日常生活いたる場面で失敗を繰り返すなどが出てきます。

次回は、ディスレクシアだと学校ではなぜ困り感が出るのか、社会に出た時にどのような困り感に繋がるのかをお話します。

<運営会社:Jiyuuku Inc.

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