承認欲求【1】

メンタル・イデア・ラボの本城ハルです。

誰もが持っている欲求【承認欲求】。

言葉は知っていても「人に認めてもらいたい気持ちのことでしょ」とかなり大雑把な捉え方をしている人が多いのではないでしょうか。

今回から3回に分けて承認欲求について、その種類や承認欲求と自己顕示欲、承認欲求と自己肯定感の関係、承認欲求が強くなってしまう原因、承認欲求が強い人の特徴などをお話ししたいと思います。

承認欲求には【自己承認欲求】【他者承認欲求】があります。

そして承認欲求の“承認”には【集団的承認】と【一般的承認】がありますが、まずは人は誰でも5つの欲求を持っていることからお話しします。

これはアメリカの心理学者アブラハム・マズローが提唱した自己実現論から【マズローの欲求断層説】と呼ばれ、それぞれ【生理的欲求】【安全欲求】【社会的欲求】【承認欲求】【自己実現欲求】になり、その中で承認欲求は4番目とされています。

生理的欲求から始まった欲求は、満たされると次の欲求に向かい、最終的に自己実現に向かいます。欲求が段階的にステップアップしていくので、自己実現に至る過程で生まれるのが承認欲求なのです。

それぞれの欲求について解説します。

【生理的欲求】
人が生命を維持していくための根源にある欲求が生理的欲求。
代表的なものが『食』『睡眠』『性』で、『食』の欲求は強く、飢餓状態にあると他の欲求を感じません。

【安全欲求】
生理的欲求が満たされると危険を回避しようとする欲求が生まれます。
危険に対する不安や恐怖から予測不可能なことは避けようとします。

【社会的欲求】
生理的欲求と安全欲求が満たされると、より高次的な欲求が生まれます。
社会的欲求は愛と所属とも呼ばれます。人は共同体の一人として所属し、コミュニティに好意的に迎え入れられたいという欲求を持っています。

【承認欲求】
社会的欲求が満たされると次が承認欲求です。
自己の自己への評価を満たそうとする欲求が“自己承認欲求”です。自己承認欲求(自尊心とも置き換えられます)を満たすために『自信』『自由』『自立』などを求め、他者からの他者承認欲求を満たしたいために、“受容されること”、“名声”、“理解”を求めます。自己承認欲求と他者承認欲求が満たされていると自分を肯定でき自信に繋がります。

【自己実現欲求】
前記の欲求が満たされることで自己実現への欲求が生まれます。
自己の力でなりたいものになろうとする欲求と言えばわかりやすいと思います。

次回は【一般的欲求】【集団的欲求】からスタートします。

本年のコラムの掲載は2021年12月25日土曜日までとさせていただきます。来年は2022年1月10日月曜日から掲載し、その後は5の倍数日に掲載してまいります。

<運営会社:Jiyuuku Inc.

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