同調圧力とKY、思考

新年明けまして、おめでとうございます。

メンタル・イデア・ラボの本城ハルです。

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5・10・15・20・25・30日

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本年もお付き合いのほど、よろしくお願いいたします。

2020年 子年

2020年最初のコラムは、日本人なら誰もが一度は経験したことのある同調圧力とKYについて書こうと思います。

同調とは他者に“調子を合わせる(本意、不本意に関係なく)”であり、【同調圧力】や【同調行動】は環境や関係、感情によって生まれます。似ているように思われがちですが、

同調】と【協調】はまったく違うもの

です。

同調が他者に(自分の考えや意見を飲み込む、または自分の考えや意思を持たず、無意識的、意識的に関わらず)調子を合わせることに対し、協調は他者と考えや意見、また立場が違っても“互いに”譲り合ったり、擦り合わせをし協力することを言います。

深く考えずに適当に「そうそう、そうだよね〜、あるあるー!」と言っているそこのアナタ、それは共感や協調ではなく、ただの同調です。

協調は互いに助け合い、協力し合うことで調和を目指す前向きなものなのですが、同調はその裏側に不安や恐怖、忖度に面倒くささもあったりするので、“見せかけの調和”と言えるのかもしれませんね。

人は自分と同じ行動(考えや意見)をする人に対し、親近感を持ち安心感を覚えます。これは同調効果と呼ばれます。似た行動にミラーリング効果がありますが、これをわざとらしくない程度に意図的に行動に織り込むことで、相手との心的距離を縮める効果があります。

話を戻しますが、日本は古くから単一民族であったため海外ほど“互いに違う文化や考え方を尊重し合い、認め合っていく”機会に恵まれてきませんでした。

まだまだ絵に描いた餅でしかないダイバーシティという考え方ですが、真の意味でなかなか浸透しない背景には“皆同じ行動”や“多数派が正しいかも?”という考え方が、集団としての“まとまり”として良しとされてきたこと、何より幼少期から飛び出す個性より足並みを揃えること、協調性を求められながら育てられることで、集団の中で浮かないことや長いものに巻かれることが生きやすいことと学んでいます。学校教育がその典型でしょう。

こと日本社会においては一概に間違いとは言えないと思いますが、“他者(の評価、考えや思考)”を“気にし過ぎるあまり、自分を上手く主張できない”ため、海外では“自己主張できない、自分の意見を言えない、ノーと言えない日本人”と映ることも多いようです。

日本では多数派の意見に異論を唱えると「それはオカシイ」という空気になり(もちろんオカシイ時は少数多数関係なくオカシイのですが)、挙げ句「空気が読めない」と思われ、略して【KY】という新語が生まれたほどです(笑)

人間関係において軋轢を生まないコツは、アサーションなどコミュニケーションスキルを身につけておくことはもちろんのこと、

事と次第によっては同感するし共感もするけれど、自分の意思があるので異論があれば同調はしない。でも、他者の意見や考えは尊重し、擦り合わせが必要な場面では互いに歩み寄ることで、なるべく納得のいく着地点を探る努力は惜しまない

といったところでしょうか。

実際問題、立場が違う人間と意見交換をしたり、人が集まり意見を出し合う場面では多少なり同調効果は表れるので、そこにゆる〜い同調圧力は働くものです。

同調は自分の考えや意見を表明しなくてもいいので、一見とても楽チンに思えます。しかしそれは恐ろしいことに

自分に問う、思考する、を麻痺させていく

側面も持っています。長いものに巻かれることは、ラクで間違いないこともあるので、処世術の一つと考えるとあながち間違いとも言えないかもしれません。ただそれが行き過ぎると、今の官僚組織のように忖度、KYばかりが常態化して本来の役割や目的を忘れてしまいます。

しかし、近年“思考する”ことができない(わからない、不得手)人が増えてきていると感じる背景には、“ラクだから(嫌われたくないから)同調しておく”もあるように思えてなりません。

フランスの哲学者であり、また数学者でもあったブレーズ・パスカルは『人は考える葦である』と表現しました。「葦はか弱いものである。だが、人間は宇宙より偉大だ。なぜならば考えることができるからだ」と。

【考える】は、とても面倒なプロセスで、考えても考えても、頭から湯気が出そうになるほど考えても解がないことは多くあります。解を求めたがるのは人間のサガかもしれませんが、

解を求めることが目的ではなく【思考すること】こそが目的

と言い表すとわかりやすいでしょうか。

人間が考える葦ならば、思考しなくなった人間はただの葦ということになります。

考えても解がないから無駄だ、とは思わないでください。解がないこともまた解なのですから。

<運営会社:Jiyuuku Inc.

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