ADHDの課題【時間管理】について<4>:認知面の気付きと対策を考える。

⚠︎:発達障害は先天的な脳の発達の偏りなので、親の躾や環境、また、本人のせいでもありません。発達障害をややこしくしているのは、無理解、無知からくる不適切な対応などでさまざまな神経症や精神疾患を併発したことによる二次障害といえます。

メンタル・イデア・ラボの本城ハルです。

4回目、次回5回目は、ADHDの時間管理/認知面の気付きと対策について考えていきます。

認知(思考)の歪みには、不安や抑うつを生む自動思考と呼ばれるものも多く含まれますが、あまりにも普段の思考に密接であることから、なかなか気付きにくいものです。

自動思考とは、起こった出来事に対する咄嗟の評価

で、その評価が正しいこともあれば、そうでもない時もあります。

ASDやADHDを持つ人は、“失敗”から自動思考が知らないうちに徐々に歪んでいくので、不安や抑うつに引き込まれやすい傾向にあります。

自分の【自動思考の中にある認知の歪み】に気付くことが第一歩になります。

克服するための第二歩が、

【歪んだ自動思考に気付き、その思考に自ら反論し、それに代わる合理的反応を自身で持てるようになる】ことです。

起こった出来事に対する【認知】が【感情】を生み出すのですが、この“認知(思考)”は、出来事が起こった瞬時に自動的に生み出されるものなので(だから自動思考)、その結果生まれる感情にばかり目を向けがちで、【認知】そのものはほったらかし、意識しないことがほとんどです。

認知の歪みを引き起こす自動思考にはさまざまな出どころがあるのですが、本題から外れるので認知について掘り下げてお話する機会に取っておきます。

自動思考、認知の歪みに気付くためには、感情そのものではなく、感情が生まれた出来事に対し、自分が“どのように受け取ったか”に意識を向ける練習が必要になります。

“不快”“辛い”“不安”“怒り”という感情の変化が起こった時にメモを取り、その感情にラベル付けしてみます。←毎回やるのは大変ですから、やれる環境にある時に意識的にやってみましょう。

前提)明日の大切なプレゼン用資料作りを任され、それを今夜中に仕上げなくてはいけないので徹夜になりそうです。資料作りに取り掛かろうとした時に憂鬱な気持ちに襲われるかもしれませんし、想像しただけで強い感情に襲われるかもしれません。

自動思考は何らかの感情と直接関係しています。今回、具体的にどのような自動思考が表れやすいのか見ていきましょう。

●それが【不安】からの場合
「どうしよう、もし失敗したらどうすればいいんだ・・・」「もうプロジェクトから外されるかもしれない」

●それが【抑うつ】からの場合
「あーダメだダメだ、こんなんじゃダメに決まってる!」「自分はなぜこんなことも満足にできないんだ」

●それが【怒り】からの場合
「自分一人にこんな膨大な資料を作らせるなんて上司は酷すぎる!」「要求レベルが高すぎる!きっと私に失敗させようとしてるんだ」

このように、起こった出来事(明日までに作成しなければならないプレゼン資料)により湧き上がってきた自分の感情(不安、抑うつ、怒り)を俯瞰し、じっくり観察してみることで、感情や行動(完璧主義や回避傾向)のトリガーとなる自動思考を同定していきます。

【認知の歪み】の具体例

●二分割思考(0か100か)完璧主義
物事を白か黒か、0か100かの両極端でしか捉えられない。
例:「もしこれで契約が取れなければ、もう自分は終わりだ」

●過度な一般化
一つのネガティブな出来事だけを根拠に、すべて悪いほうに捉える。
例:「自分は何一つまともにできない」「自分は幸せになんかなれない」

●“すべき”思考
過度に「〜すべき」「〜しなければならない」と考え過ぎ、それが実現できないと罪悪感や自罰傾向が高まる。自分の中の“べき”に則った行動をしてしまう。
例:「良くないおこないをする人には、どう思われてもその人のために注意すべきだ」「自分はクズなんだから、何を言われても黙って甘受しなくてはならない」

●レッテル貼り
たった一度の出来事で、自分や他者にネガティブなレッテル貼りイメージを固定してしまう。
例:「どんな綺麗事を言ったってどうせ裏切られる」「所詮女(男)はこういうものだ」

●結論の飛躍
結論が正確かもわからないのに(そのような事実はないのに)、ネガティブな解釈をする。<心の読み過ぎ、空気の読み過ぎ>と<根拠があるわけでもなく相手に確認もしていないのに、相手は自分に対しネガティブな反応をしていると思い込む>という二通りのタイプがある。
例:「自分が話をしていたのにスマホを見た、きっと話が面白くないに違いない」

●先読みの誤り
起きてもいないのに、悪い結果になると勝手に予想し、その予想が確立した事実と思い込む。
例:「同窓会で嫌な思いをするに決まってる、だから行くものか」

●選択的注意(以前お話した“選択的注意”とは違います)
小さな一つのネガティブな側面だけを取り出し、他を無視してそのことだけを考える。
例:「その髪型似合うね、髪の色はもう少し暗いほうがいいかも」に対し「どうせ似合わないと思ってるんだろう」

●自分への関連付け
実際に自分に責任がないことでも、ネガティブな出来事をすべて自分のせいだと考えてしまう。
例:「私が発表しているのにあの人が出て行ったのは、私の話が退屈だったからだ」←たまたま電車の時間だったかも、具合が悪く席を立ったのかも、と思わない。

●破滅思考
もし○○が起こったら、もしくは、〇〇が起こらなかったら破滅だ、と決めつけて考えてしまう。
例:「もし面接に落ちたらおしまいだ、自分は耐えられないだろう」「彼がいなくなったらもう生きていけない」

認知の歪みは極端な思考を呼び、不快感や不安、怒りといった強い感情を生み出しやすくなります。認知→感情、の感情にだけ目を向けるのではなく、感情の出どころ(認知)に意識を向ける練習を続けると、自分の自動思考に気付けるようになります。

自分の自動思考における認知の歪みを同定できたら、合理的な反論で、その歪みに自分で反論してみます。自動思考→認知の歪み→その認知に反論した合理的反応・・・の例を一つ出して考えてみましょう。

<例:やっとこぎ着けた就職の三次面接前夜>

  • 自動思考:次こそ面接で上手くやらなくては。はぁ、ちゃんとやれるのか本当に心配だ。毎回こんな時は神経質になってしまって、本来の自分が見せられたことが一度もない。もう10回目の面接だ・・・でも、こんな好条件な仕事は二度と私には巡ってこない。
  • 認知の歪み:破滅化、過度の一般化、先読みの誤り
  • 合理的反応:「いかんいかん、自分は少し神経質になってるのかも。でも、面接なんて誰でも緊張したり神経質になるものだよな。緊張するなんて面接する側もわかってるはずだし。よし!履歴書も職務経歴書も丁寧によく出来てる、緊張して多少上手く話せなくてもこれで自分をわかってもらえるだろう。」

もう一つ例を出します。

<何日も前から親に「片付けるように」と言われていた散らかった部屋、「そういえば片付けたの?」と聞かれました。>

  • 自動思考:「あっ、何もやってないや。はぁ、つくづく自分って怠け者でダメダメな人間なんだろうな」
  • 認知の歪み:過度な一般化
  • 合理的反応:「確かに自分を片付けは苦手で時間もかかる。でも、だからといってすべてにおいて怠け者というわけではないよな。まとめては難しいけど、今日はタンスだけ明日は机と机周り、というふうにやれば自分でもできるぞ!」

合理的反応を目指すためには、まず【認知の歪み】やそこからくる【自動思考】に気付かなくては始まりません。

ちょっと自己分析してみませんか?

<運営会社:Jiyuuku Inc.

「ADHDの課題【時間管理】について<4>:認知面の気付きと対策を考える。」への77件のフィードバック

  1. Wow, awesome blog structure! How long have you been running a blog
    for? you made blogging look easy. The full glance of your site is wonderful,
    let alone the content! You can see similar here sklep internetowy

  2. Hi there! Do you know if they make any plugins to assist with SEO?
    I’m trying to get my website to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m
    not seeing very good gains. If you know of any please share.
    Thank you! I saw similar text here: GSA Verified List

  3. Hey! Do you know if they make any plugins to help with Search Engine Optimization? I’m trying to get my site to
    rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good gains.

    If you know of any please share. Thanks! I saw similar text here: Escape rooms review

  4. I have been browsing on-line more than 3 hours today, but I never found any attention-grabbing article like yours. It is beautiful value sufficient for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made just right content as you did, the web can be a lot more helpful than ever before!

  5. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a coworker who was doing a little homework on this. And he in fact ordered me breakfast simply because I found it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending some time to discuss this matter here on your web page.

  6. Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon every day. It’s always useful to read articles from other authors and use a little something from other sites.

  7. It’s the pity you actually don’t possess a donate switch! I’d most likely donate to this superior site! We suppose that for now i’ll are satisfied with book-marking as well as adding your own Rss feed in order to my personal Search engines accounts. We appear forth in order to recent posts and can show this particular web page along with my personal Myspace group: )

  8. Hi! I simply wish to give you a huge thumbs up for the excellent information you have got here on this post. I will be returning to your site for more soon.

  9. Good day! Do you know if they make any plugins to assist with SEO?
    I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m
    not seeing very good success. If you know of any please share.
    Kudos! You can read similar article here

  10. You are so interesting! I do not believe I have read something like that before. So great to find someone with some unique thoughts on this topic. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing that is required on the web, someone with a little originality.

  11. i signed up on clicksor last month and i was impressed with the amount of money i made in one month`

  12. A powerful share, I simply given this onto a colleague who was doing a bit of analysis on this. And he actually purchased me breakfast because I found it for him.. smile. So let me reword that: Thnx for the deal with! However yeah Thnkx for spending the time to discuss this, I feel strongly about it and love studying extra on this topic. If potential, as you become experience, would you thoughts updating your weblog with more details? It is extremely helpful for me. Massive thumb up for this blog post!

  13. Good post and a nice summation of the problem. My only problem with the analysis is given that much of the population joined the chorus of deregulatory mythology, given vested interest is inclined toward perpetuation of the current system and given a lack of a popular cheerleader for your arguments, I’m not seeing much in the way of change.

  14. Good – I should certainly say I’m impressed with your blog. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs as well as related info. The site ended up being truly easy to access. Great job..

  15. An intriguing discussion might be priced at comment. I think that you need to write regarding this topic, it might not become a taboo subject but normally individuals are insufficient to speak on such topics. An additional. Cheers

  16. The next occasion I read a weblog, Hopefully that this doesnt disappoint me as much as this one. Come on, man, Yes, it was my choice to read, but When i thought youd have some thing fascinating to express. All I hear can be a number of whining about something you could fix should you werent too busy in search of attention.

  17. Saw the entire write-up. You have a couple of really insightful info here. thankyou. “Beware lest in your anxiety to avoid war you obtain a master.” by Demosthenes..

  18. You’re so cool! I do not think I’ve truly read through something like that before. So nice to find somebody with a few original thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing that is required on the internet, someone with some originality.

  19. You’re so cool! I don’t suppose I’ve truly read something like this before. So great to discover another person with genuine thoughts on this subject matter. Seriously.. many thanks for starting this up. This website is something that’s needed on the internet, someone with a little originality.

  20. Aw, this was a very nice post. In idea I wish to put in writing like this additionally – taking time and precise effort to make a very good article… however what can I say… I procrastinate alot and in no way seem to get one thing done.

  21. Hey very nice site!! Man .. Beautiful .. Amazing .. I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds also…I’m happy to find numerous useful information here in the post, we need develop more strategies in this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  22. Great submit I’m serious to master just what internet site method that you are making use of? We have been encountering several modest stableness difficulties with my own newest web site and also I’d just like to discover anything at all far more protected. Any kind of solutions… In addition think about Egypt awesome details!

  23. I and also my buddies have been checking the best tips from your site then all of the sudden came up with an awful suspicion I never expressed respect to the blog owner for them. Most of the people are actually as a consequence joyful to read them and have actually been using them. I appreciate you for actually being indeed kind as well as for deciding upon some brilliant subject areas most people are really needing to understand about. Our own honest apologies for not saying thanks to earlier.

  24. Aw, this has been an extremely good post. In notion I have to set up writing in this way moreover – taking time and actual effort to make a top notch article… but exactly what can I say… I procrastinate alot and also by no indicates seem to go done.

  25. There are certainly plenty of details like that to take into consideration. That could be a nice level to deliver up. I offer the ideas above as general inspiration but clearly there are questions just like the one you deliver up where crucial factor might be working in sincere good faith. I don?t know if greatest practices have emerged around things like that, but I am positive that your job is clearly recognized as a fair game. Both boys and girls feel the affect of only a moment’s pleasure, for the rest of their lives.

  26. I’m curious to find out what blog platform you have been utilizing? I’m having some minor security problems with my latest site and I would like to find something more risk-free. Do you have any suggestions?

  27. We still cannot quite believe that It was not respectable come to be the type staring at the important points located on yuor web blog. Our family and i also are sincerely thankful for use on your generosity too as for giving me possibility pursue our chosen profession path. I appreciate you important information I had on your web-site.

  28. Hello, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to “return the favor”.I am trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  29. Awesome read. I just passed this onto a buddy who was doing a little research on that. He just bought me lunch because I found it for him! Thus let me rephrase: Thanx for lunch!

  30. So of all the apps you mentioned, which one would you say is the best? I see a lot of tweets coming from tweetdeck, do you think that one is worth downloading? I just joined twitter a few weeks ago, andlove finding the best ways to utilize it, so thank you for this list.

  31. most cosmetics today are made up of artificial products that can harm the skin, there are still few natural cosmetics on the market..

  32. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a co-worker who has been doing a little research on this. And he actually bought me lunch simply because I stumbled upon it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending time to discuss this subject here on your site.

  33. It’s hard to find knowledgeable people in this particular topic, but you sound like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks

  34. Having read this I thought it was rather enlightening. I appreciate you taking the time and energy to put this article together. I once again find myself spending way too much time both reading and posting comments. But so what, it was still worthwhile.

  35. A fascinating discussion is worth comment. I think that you ought to publish more about this topic, it might not be a taboo subject but generally people don’t talk about such subjects. To the next! Best wishes!

  36. When I originally commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a remark is extra I get four emails with the identical comment. Is there any way you are able to take away me from that service? Thanks!

  37. Hi there, I discovered your website by the use of Google whilst looking for a comparable topic, your site came up, it appears good. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  38. That is a really good tip particularly to those fresh to the blogosphere. Simple but very accurate info… Thank you for sharing this one. A must read post!

  39. Great web site you’ve got here.. It’s hard to find quality writing like yours these days. I honestly appreciate people like you! Take care!!

  40. Greetings, I believe your web site may be having browser compatibility problems. When I take a look at your website in Safari, it looks fine however, if opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping issues. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Besides that, great site!

  41. Hello there! I simply wish to give you a huge thumbs up for your great information you have got right here on this post. I will be returning to your website for more soon.

  42. Everything is very open with a really clear clarification of the challenges. It was definitely informative. Your website is extremely helpful. Thank you for sharing.

  43. Good day! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after looking at many of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Regardless, I’m certainly delighted I came across it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back regularly.

  44. This is a topic that is close to my heart… Cheers! Exactly where can I find the contact details for questions?

  45. After looking over a handful of the blog articles on your site, I really like your technique of blogging. I book-marked it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back in the near future. Please visit my web site too and let me know what you think.

  46. Greetings! Very helpful advice within this article! It’s the little changes that make the most significant changes. Thanks for sharing!

  47. Oh my goodness! Incredible article dude! Thank you, However I am going through difficulties with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I can’t subscribe to it. Is there anyone else getting the same RSS issues? Anyone that knows the answer can you kindly respond? Thanx.

  48. Your style is unique compared to other folks I’ve read stuff from. I appreciate you for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I will just book mark this site.

コメントを残す

メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。 が付いている欄は必須項目です