自己肯定感と自己有用感

メンタル・イデア・ラボの本城ハルです。

“自尊感情”とは自己に対して肯定的な評価を抱いている状態で、心理学ではSelfesteemといいます。

現在は日本でも広く“自己肯定感”として使われ、一般的な言葉になっています。

『自己有用感』とは・・・?

『自己有用感』とは、他者の役に立った、他者に喜んでもらえた・・・など、自分以外の他者が存在しなければ生まれてこない感情で、『自尊感情』や『自己肯定感』とは多少異なります。

自分に対する他者からの評価が中心で、最終的には自己評価があるにせよ、他者評価を強く感じた上で生まれる感情だという点がポイントになります。

単に「部内で営業成績が一番だ」という自信からくるものではなく、「部内で営業成績が良かったので、全国営業コンテストに推薦された。この営業所のためにぜひ頑張りたい」という自信です。

そういう意味では「部内で営業成績が一番」かどうかは、さほど重要ではなくなっていると思いませんか?

『自己有用感』の獲得が『自尊感情』に繋がるであろうことは容易に想像できますよね。しかし、『自尊感情』が高いことが必ずしも『自己有用感』の高さと一致するとは限りません。

他者の存在を前提としない自己評価は社会性に結びつくとは限らず、社会性を前提とした場合、『自己有用感』に裏付けられた『自尊感情』が大切になります。もちろん、自分自身が自分を肯定的に認めることは、とても大切なことですが。

【褒めること】と【認めること】

両者の違いをよくわかっていない人は案外多いのではないでしょうか。

結果に対し望んでいたことに達していた、結果が良ければ評価する、これが褒めるです。「認めてあげようと思って褒めている」「褒めることは、そのまま認めること」という感覚なのではないでしょうか。

また多くの人たちもそのように受け止めているでしょう。誰しも自分を「褒めてほしい」と思っていて、それは承認欲求という形で表れます。一般に一定の水準に達した、水準を超えたと評価するのが「褒める」という行為と言えます。反対に言えば、水準に達しない場合には「頑張りましょう」と激励することはあっても“褒める”ことは稀ではないでしょうか。

子供が「認めてもらいたい」時というのは子供の基準や水準で「褒められたい」ことがほとんどで、子供なりのこだわりで努力したり工夫したことを「認められたい」ものです。大人ですら頑張りを認めてほしいのですから、子供では尚のことです。

基準に達していなくても「褒めてほしい」と考えたり、大人の考えた水準に到達して「褒められた」場合でさえ、大人の基準とは異なる子供の基準でも「褒めてほしい」と考えたりするわけです。

なので、自分がさほど努力もしていない、自分の功績ではないことを「よく頑張りましたね」と一括りにして褒められても、さほど嬉しくもなく励みにもならないのです。

子供の実際の行動と向き合うことなく表面的にお世辞を言ったり、ちやほやしても子供の『自己有用感』はもちろん『自尊感情』すら高めないのです。

行事に取り組む、学習に取り組む際などに“子供自身”に目標や工夫する点、努力する点などを考えてもらい、その基準に沿ってどこまで達成できたのかを評価することが「認める」という行為では一番重要になります。

それが『自己有用感』を育みます。

単に良かった・悪かったことだけを評価して「褒める」では『自尊感情』を育むことはできても『自己有用感』を育むことにはなりにくいのです。

例えば、「ふりかえりシート」のようなものを用い、子供の振り返りに対し、ただ「頑張ったね」だけではなく、子供が「こだわった」「見てほしかった」点に着目し、そこに触れたフィードバックをすることが大切です。これは子供に限ったことではありません。

組織、夫婦、パートナーなどとの関係でも言えることなので、今一度【人を認める】とはどういうことかを考えながら振り返ってみる機会にしていただければと思います。

<運営会社:Jiyuuku Inc.

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